COURSE TITLE: INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course includes the fundamentals of Educational Research. It aims to train the students in the dynamics of Research from choosing relevant problem, reviewing related literature, formulating conceptual framework, planning for methodology and data analysis. The students are expected to present and conduct their research proposals. A final research output is expected from the students.
ISIDRO & MALOLOS (1979)
Research – process of scientific thinking that leads to the discovery or establishment of new knowledge or truth. It is not a subjective expression of ideas or opinions.
1. Based on Facts
2. It starts from a complex of problems
3. It is free from personal bias or opinion
4. It uses objective measurements
Research – ideally, the careful, unbiased investigation of a problem, based insofar as possible, upon demonstrable facts and involving refined distinctions, interpretations and usually some generalizations.
Research – systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.
SEVILLA, ET. AL (1984)
4. CRITICAL ANALYSIS
STEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVING - Good and Scates (1972)
1. Formulation and development of Problem for investigation and survey of related literature
2. Selection and use of one or more appropriate methods for gathering evidence, together with analysis and interpretation of data.
3. Reporting and implementation of the findings.
TWO TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
1. Basic or Pure Research Applied or Empirical Research
2. Applied or Empirical Research
Types of Research by Kerlinger (1973)
1. Historical Method – to reconstruct the past objective and accurately, often in relation to the tenability of a hypothesis (tracing the history of agrarian reform in the Philippines)
2. Descriptive – to describe systematically a situation or area of interest factually and accurately (Census, Pulse-Asia, fact-finding surveys)
3. Developmental – to investigate patters and sequences of growth and/or change as a function of time (longitudinal growth study following an initial sample of 200 children from 6 months of age to adulthood)
4. Case/Field – to study intensively the background, current status & environmental interactions of a given social unit: an individual, a group, an institution or a community. (case history of a child with an above average IQ but with severe learning disabilities)
5. Correlational – to investigate the extent to which variations in one factor correlate with variations in one or more other factors based on correlation coefficitient. (investigate relationships between reading achievement scores and one or more variables of interest)
6. Causa-comparative or “ex post facto” method – to investigate possible cause-and-effect relationships by observing some existing consequence and looking back through the data for plausible causal factors (to investigate similarities and differences between such groups as smokers and nonsmokers, readers and nonreadings using data on file)
7. True experimental – to investigate possible cause-and-effect relationslhips by exposing one or more experimental groups to one or more treatment conditions and comparing the results to one or more control groups not receiving the treatment, random assignment being essential (to investigate the effectiveness of 3 methods of teaching reading to first-grade children using random assignments of children and teachers to groups and methods
8. Quasi-experimental – to approximate the conditions of the true experiement in a setting which does not allow the control or manipulation of all relevant variables. The researcher must clearly understand what compromises exist in lthe internal and external validity of his design and proceed within these limitations (field experiments, operational research and even the more sophisticated forms of axn research which attempt to get at causal factors in real life settings where only partial control is possible)
9. Action – to develop new skills or new approaches and to solve problems with direct application to the classroom or other applied settings (an in-service training program to help teachers develop new skills in facilitating class discussion)
Gall Classification of Educational Research (1979)
1. Survey – employs questionnaires and interviews in order to determine opnions, attitudes, preferences and perceptions of interest to the researcher. (poll opinions)
2. Observational – a technique for gathering data about the subjects involved in a studyh (collecting educational data using observation with the focus on human behaviour)
a. Primary Sources – documents writeen by eyewitness
b. Secondary – documents described the event but is second hand info
4. Causal-comparative (e.g. study of the incidence of lung cancer on adult males who were heavy smokers as opposed to non-smokers)
5. Correlational – similar to causal-comparative difference is selected individuals are selected who vary on the measures that are being studied (high school grade-point average and college grade-point average for students from ghetto environment)
6. Experimental – adapted from physical and biological sciences.
7. Research-based development – educators and researches way to bridge the gap between research and practice
8. Evaluation – evaluation data to help in the decision-making process. Systematic collection of evidence on the worth of education programs, products & techniques.
9. Action – application of the steps of the scientific method to classroom problems.
The Research Problem
An investigator knows that a problem is really researchable when:
1. there is no known solution to the problem
2. the solution can be answered by using statistical methods and techniques
3. there are probable solutions but they are not yet tested
4. the occurrence of phenomena require scientific investigation to arrive at precise solution
Characteristics of a good research problem should be SMART:
Specific – The problem should be specifically stated
Measurable – easy to measure by using research instruments (i.e., questionnaire, tests, etc.) in collecting data
Achievable – data are achievable using correct statistical techniques to arrive at precise results.
Realistic – real results are not manipulated
Time-bound – time frame is required in every activity because the shorter completion of the activity the better.
Criteria of a Good Research
1. Interesting – attracts the attention of the investigator to study the problem further.
2. Relevant to the needs of the People – researcher must keep in mind that they work not for themselves but for the people
3. Innovative – not be necessarily new, it might be a restructuring of an old problem to make it new. In this manner, results will be more relevant and useful to a greater number of people.
4. Cost Effective – 4M’s (Man, Money, materials and Machinery) are needed in conducting research. Measurable and time-bound – measurable by using research instruments like tests, questionnaires, rating scales, observation schedules or interviews, and statistical treatment to arrive at scientific and meaningful results.
A RESEARCH Paper is made up of 3 main parts:
1. Front Matter or Preliminaries
..........b. Title Page
..........c. Blank Page
..........d. Table of contents
..........e. List of Illustrations
..........f. List of Tables
..........g. Preface or Acknowledgments
2. The Text
..........b. Main Body of Paper, usually consisting of well-defined divisions, such as parts, chapters,
sections, etc., and including footnotes.
3. The Reference Matter
..........c. Additional reference material (glossary or a list of abbreviations)
COMMON ABBREVIATIONS IN RESEARCH
1. ibid - An abbreviation for the Latin word ibidem, which means "in the same place."
2. Refers to the same author and source (e.g. book, journal)
1. as the immediately preceding reference.
2. OP CIT - Short for the latin "opus citatum", meaning "the work cited". Used in footnotes to refer the reader to an earlier citation. (Note: ibid refers readers to the immediately preceding citation.)
3. LOC CIT – in the place cited
4. i.e. - An abbreviation for id est, Latin for "that is to say" or "namely." The phrase is used to clarify a point, as in this example: "The directions read, `Enclose a #10 (i.e., business-sized) self-addressed, stamped envelope with your submission.'
5. et al. - n. abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alii meaning "and others." This is commonly used in shortening the name of a case, as in "Pat Murgatroyd v. Sally Sherman, et al."
6. pro tem. - Temporarily, provisional. Short for Latin word Pro Tempore.It refers to a reprentation of one person to the other as a subsitute on temporary basis. Eg. When a chief minister is represented by the deputy minister in a meeting, where the chief minister is not able to make it, is known as chief minister pro tem.
7. e.g. - exempli gratia, for example
8. et seq. - n. abbreviation for the Latin phrase et sequentes meaning "and the following." It is commonly used by lawyers to include numbered lists, pages or sections after the first number is stated, as in "the rules of the road are found in Vehicle Code Section 1204, et seq."
9. q.v. - which see (used to indicate a cross reference to something within the same book or article) [Latin, quod vide]
10. anon. – anonymous
11. aug. – augmented, enlarged
12. art., arts. – article, articles
13. AV – Authorized Version, RSV – Revised Standard Version
14. bk., bks., - book, books
15. Bost. – Boston
16. bull. – bulletin
17. ca., c., - about, approximately (circa)
18. cf., - compare (confer)
19. ch – chapter
20. et. seq. – and the following (et sequens)
21. id., - same person (idem)
22. infra. – below
23. N.B. – note well (nota bene)
24. op. cit. – in the work cited (opera citato)
25. passim – here and there (scattered
26. q.v. – which see (quod vide)
27. vide – see, refer to
28. vine, vide, vici – I came, I saw, I conquer
Hypothesis – a wise guess that is formulated and temporarily adopted to explain the observed facts covered by the study. It tells the investigator what to do and how to go about solving a research problem.
Functions of a Hypothesis:
1. It introduces the researcher’s thinking at the start of the study.
2. It structures the next stages or procedures of the study.
3. It helps you provide the format for the presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data in the thesis.
Thesis – a treatise advancing a new point of view resulting from research; usually a requirement for an advanced academic degree [syn: dissertation]
Parts of a Thesis:
Chapter 1 (The Problem and Its Background)
...................1.1 Statement of the Problem
...................1.2 Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
...................1.5 Significance of the Study
...................1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
...................1.7 Definition of Key Terms
...................1.8 General Organization and Coverage of the Study
Chapter 2 (Review of Related Literature)
...................2.1 Related Readings
...................2.2 Related Literature
...................2.3 Related Studies (Foreign & Local)
...................2.4 Justification of the Present Study
Chapter 3 (Methodology)
...................3.1 Research Design
...................3.2 Determination of Sample Size (if sample survey)
...................3.3 Sampling Design and Technique (if sample survey)
...................3.4 The Subjects
...................3.5 The Research Instruments
...................3.6 Validation of the Research Instruments
...................3.7 Data Gathering Procedure
...................3.8 Data Processing Method
...................3.9 Statistical Treatment
Chapter 4 (Results, Analysis and Interpretation)
Chapter 5 (Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations)
Sample – small group that you observe in a population. According to Ferguson (1976) it is any subaggregate drawn from the population.
Population – larger group about which your generalization is made. According to Gay (1976) it is the group to which a researcher would like the results to be generalizable.
1. Random Sampling – method of selecting a sample size from a universe such that each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample and all possible combinations of size have an equal chance of being selected as sample.
2. Systematic Random Sampling – strategy for selecting the members of a sample that allows only chance and a system to determine membership in a sample.
- 200 from numbered 2000 participants
- Random select number 1-10 and take every tenth participant in the list.
3. Stratified Random Sampling – strategy for selecting samples in such a way that specific subgroups (strata) will have a sufficient number of representatives within the sample to provide sample numbers for sub-analysis of the members of these sub-groups.
- Population is 1000 and your desired sample is 100 stratified. First identify the different strata that constitute your population
- Sex (1 Stratum) = 200 males, 800 females
- 200 / 1000 = 20%
- 800 / 100 = 80%
- Multiply each % by 100 to get the correct sample units.
- 100 x 20% = 20
- 100 x 80% = 80
- 20 + 80 = 100 is your sample unit for Sex Strata
- Other strata may be identified based on Age, Ethnography, etc.
4. Cluster Random Sampling – occurs when you select the members of your sample in clusters rather than in using separate individuals. It is sampling in which groups, not individuals are randomly selected. (A, B, C, D)
5. Non-Random Sampling
a. Purposive or Deliberative Sampling – design is based on choosing individuals as samples according to the purposes of the researcher as his controls.
b. Quota Sampling – popular in the field of opinion research because it is done by merely looking for individuals with the requisite characteristics. The sampling technique is usually prepared by the main office with instructions to the field researchers to collect data from samples that meet the prescribed criteria or characteristics
c. Convenience Sampling – design is applied to those samples which are taken because they are the most avilalble. The researcher simply takes the nearest individuals as subjects of the study till the sample reaches the desired size.
6. Universal Random Sampling – where you interview the entire population. This is practical if your respondents is only limited to few number.
7. Alternative Method
(7A) Participatory – problem is defined in terms of the people who feel and think that it is a problem. How they will solve it will depend on how they perceive the problem and on their resources which are available to enable them to solve it.
Framework for Analysis of Participatory Research
.............................A. Who are the participants?
.............................C. When – How long?
.............................D. Political/Economic conditions
.............................E. Origins of project
.............................F. Who wrote the report? For whom?
.............................A. Stated goals and objectives
.............................B. Problems to solve
.............................C. Unstated purposes
III. Definition of Terms
.............................A. Terms explicitly defined
.............................B. Terms not explicitly defined
.............................C. Values implied by these terms
.............................D. Assumptions made
.............................E. Changes made in assumption
.............................A. Who participates?
.............................A. Skills acquired
.............................B. Initiatives taken
.............................C. Resultant action
.............................D. Current status
.............................E. Shifts in power
.............................A. From this to other projects
.............................B. Aids/Obstructions to participation
VII. Unanswered Questions
VIII. Key Words (for referencing)
Principles in Participatory Research:
1. Methods used in research have ideological implications
2. Research process should offer some immediate and direct benefit to a community instead of merely serving as a basis for an academic paper.
3. Research process should involve all the participants in the research process from the formulation of the problem to the discussion of how this is to be solved and how the findings are to be interpreted.
4. members of the research team should be made up of the researchers and the people representing all elements in the situation. This is because they all have an influence on the change that is to be effected.
5. research participants should view the research process as a total community experience where community needs are established and awareness and commitment within the community are increased.
6. research participants should see the research process as a dialogue over time and not a static picture occuring from one point in time.aim of the research process should be the liberation of creative potential of human beings and the harnessing of human resources in order to solve social problems.
(7B) Indigenous – This came about thru the study of attemps toward an indigenization of Philippine Psychology. Two ways of indigenization: ad extra and ad intra
[a] Ad intra – makes culture as the source for identifying constructs or concepts that are truly indigenous or culture specific. (Ex. Wika is very rich source of indigenous concepts that have not really been studied validly because of the reliance on the English language. Proverbs, sayings, rituals)
[b] Ad extra – methods involved are parts of Filipino ways and traditions. The scale followed to analyze the validity of research are: Pakikitungo, Pakikisalamuha, Pakikilahok, Pakikibagay, Pakikisama, Pakikipag-palagayang-loob, Pakkisangkot, Pakikiisa, etc. Method used could be through Paka-kapa, Pakikipanuluyan at Pakikipagkuwentuhan.
(7C) Ethnographic – the disciplinal attempt to discover and describe the cultural resources with which members of a society conceptualize and interpret their experiences. It is a systematic way of knowing how a people bring order, coherence and significance to the things they do, believe and think.
* Ethnographer lives in the field where he is conducting his research.
* He is immersed to the real experience which allows him to document the informant’s testimonies and validate their statements about social phenomena and correct whatever erroneous information might have been given in the previous interviews.
8. Restricted Random Sampling – this sampling involves certain restrictions intended to improve the validity of the sample. However, this design is applicable only when the population being investigated is homogenous (of the same qualities). Restricted random samples drawn from a homogenous population are likely to arrive at accurate values of the population characteristics.
* Each member in the population is assigned a number which is written on the piece of paper.
* For example, if the size of the population is 550, 198 will be interviewed. You have to write on pieces of papers the number 1 to 550. This will be placed in a container or bottle and you will get only 198 out of 550 rolled papers.
9. Unrestricted random sampling – best random sampling design because no restriction is imposed, and every member of the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample.
* For example: population is 3,000. Each member must be assigned an identifying number ranging from 0001 to 3000.
* You will interview 244. To choose the sample of 244 from a population of 3,000 choose 4 digit numbers either vertifically, horizontally, right or left is chosen until 244 individuals are identified.
10. Multistage Sampling. This design is done by several stages. It can be two-stage, three-stage, four-stage, etc., depending on the number of stages of sampling to be used. In this design, the population individuals are grouped into a hierarcy of units, and sampling is done consecutively
* Region Wide Study: First Stage, PROVINCES. Second Stage, MUNICIPALITIES. Third Stage, BARANGAYS. Fourth Stage, RURAL FOLKS. This sampling then is Four Stages.
1. Purposive - based on choosing individuals as samples according to the purposes of the researcher as his controls. An individual is chosen as part of the sample because of good evidence that he is a representative of the total population. By and large, statisticians do not use this design because not all individuals in a population are given chance to be included since the criteria are based on the purposes of the researcher.
2. Incidental - applied to those samples which are taken because they are the most available. The researcher simply takes the nearest individuals as subjects of the study till the sample reaches the desired size.
3. Quota sampling - this design is popular in opinion research because it is done by merely looking for individuals with the requisite characteristics. The sampling technique is usually prepared by the main office with instructions to the field researchers to collect data from samples that meet the prescribed criteria or characteristics.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Abstract – refers to a brief and concise descriptive summary of the statement of the problem, hypotheses, research, determination of sample size, sampling design and technique, the subjects, the research instruments… etc.
Acknowledgment – preliminary section of a research paper, thesis or dissertation in which the researcher expresses his gratitude to the different persons who assisted, facilitated, oriented, guided him to make his work.
Alternative Hypothesis – refers to an affirmative existence of an observed phenomenon.
Approval Sheet – second page of a research paper, thesis or dissertation which furnishes the information as to the complete title of research paper, thesis or dissertation; full name of the researcher; degree to which the paper is applied for; statement of acceptance and approval.
Assumptions – refers to the presumed true statement of facts related to the research problem.
Biblical Research – refers to a systematic approach to the study of the Bible using mainly the historical and critical method in understanding and interpreting the written word of God.
Bibliography – list of source materials used by the investigator in which the surnames of authors are arranged in alphabetical order.
Conceptual Framework – framework which presents specific and well-defined concepts which are called constructs.
Cyclical – research is a cyclical process when it starts with a problem and ends with a problem.
Empirical – refers to researched based on direct experience or observation alone by the researcher and the collection of data rely on practice experience without the benefit of scientific knowledge or theory.
Endnotes – refer to notes indicated at the end of sentence in parenthetical documentation.
Experimental design – problem-solving approach in which the study is described in the future on what will be when certain variables are carefully controlled or manipulated.
Field research – research conducted in a natural setting where there is no changes in the environment.
Figures – refer to flow chart, graphs, paradigms, charts, drawings, maps and diagrams.
Footnotes – refer to a kind of note in documenting source materials which is placed at the bottom of a page with a superscript.
Plates – this refers to any kind of photographic representation or illustration.
Replicability – research design and procedure are replicated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid conclusive results.
Sampling statistics – refers to the body of statistical methods concerned with the making of statements about population parameters from sample statistics.
Theoretical framework – symbolic construction which uses abstract concepts, facts, laws or variables and their relations that explains and predicts how an observed phenomenon exists and operates.
Usability – refers to the degree to which the research instrument can be satisfactorily used by investigators without undue expenditures of time, money and effort.
Validity – degree to which the research instrument measures what it intends to measure.
3 Methods of Data Collection
1. Observation – process whereby the researcher or observer watches the research situation.
Those who are using observation approach should consider these:
Types of Observation:
i. Unstructured – flexible and open situation where the observer watches events pertinent to his purpose. This does not mean that this is unplanned, here the researcher has planned the what specific sample, setting, behavior or events he is going to watch.
ii. Structured – make use of objective observation guides. The presence of this guide (tool) delimits the subject for observation so that only activities, events or behavior relevant to the problem at hand are recorded. Unnecessary details are avoided, it saves the researcher from too laborious analysis of data obtained.
If Observation is your main tool you need an Observation Guide. Observation guide is the delimiting mechanism for the content and dimensions you may wish to observe in the research situation.
Influence of the Observer. The faithfulness of his observations lies in the objectivity of the instrument as well as of the observer. In some cases, observations are colored or influenced by the personality background & experience of the observer. This should be avoided.
Reliability of Observation. Sufficient reliability of observations established in the try-out indicates that the researcher-observer, can now objectively record observations even by himself in the given research situation.
2. Questioning. Requisites are:
Clarity of language. The vocabulary level, language structure and the conceptual level of the question should suit the level of the respondents.
Specificity of content and time period. Delimit the question to suit your respondents, avoid ambiguous and confusing question to them.
Singleness of purpose. A single question should seek a single bit of information. (Do you think that the rules of the library is effective and did you use these in borrowing books? – Break down into two)
Freedom from Assumption. Do not attached an unasked question that may be assuming. (Will you give an instance that you failed because you did not copy from your classmates?)
Freedom from suggestion. Introductory phrases like, “Don’t you agree that”; “Isn’t it surprising that”; “Can you think of any justification for” suggest some expectations from the respondents and should be avoided.
Linguistic completeness and grammatical consistency. The question should provide complete cue to the linguistic nature of the response and that the answer desired should be grammatically consistent with the question. This means do not cram into one question your many questions.
Research Interview – Method and tool for questioning.
i. Establishing Rapport – to elicit honest and complete responses
ii. Interview Guide – research tool employed is called an interview guide, interview schedule or interview plan. List of question prepared by the researcher.
iii. Open Form – open ended questions serve as a frame of reference for the respondents’ answers, but they put a minimum restraint on their answers and expressions.
iv. Close Form – presents the respondents a choice among two, or more alternatives.
v. Recording the Data – write down the summary of responses after the interview. Use tape recorder
vi. Try-out Interview – data gathered thru interview is considered subjective. It is important for the researcher to employ all possible controls so as to obtain a reasonable degree of objectivity of the data.
vii. Group-Interview – involves a group of respondents usually raning from 6 to 12. Also called Group-Focus technique. Advantage: inhibitions are released making them more likely to discuss more freely.
viii. Team Interview – Tandem interview. 2 interviewers work as tandem on one respondent. Each interviewer brings into the situation a different background or experience that requires more thorough coverage.
Rule # 1. Abbreviations in text, except in scientific and technical writing (empirical), have been frowned upon. In footnotes and bibliographies, in tabular matter, and in some kinds of illustrations (maps, graphs, charts) abbreviations not only are permitted but are normally preferred. (Give 10 examples of abbreviations)
Rule # 2. Use abbreviations for social titles before names: Mr., Mrs., Sr., Fr., Dr. (Use these titles in sentence form, give 5 examples)
Rule # 3. Use the abbreviation Dr. before a name, but spell out the word doctor when it appears without a name. (Give 3 examples)
Rule # 4. Use abbreviations for scholastic degrees and professional affiliations after names: M.A., Ph.D, and so on. A comma precedes such an abbreviation when it follows a name. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 5. Use the abbreviations Sr., Jr., II, III (for Senior, Junior, Second, Third) following a full name. Never use the spelled-out words or the abbreviations with the surname alone. A comma precedes Jr. and Sr., but not II and III. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 6. Spell out a civil, military, professional, or religious title when it precedes the surname alone. But use the appropriate abbreviation before a full name. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 7. Spell out Reverend and Honorable if preceded by the; otherwise abbreviate to Rev. and Hon. Never use the title, either spelled out or abbreviated, with the surname alone. (Give 3 examples)
Rule # 8. Saint standing before the name of the saint may be abbreviated, St. (plural SS.) (Give 3 examples)
Rule # 9. Names preceded by Saint are spelled out or abbreviated, as personal preference on the part of the bearers of such names may determine. (Give 3 examples)
Rule # 10. Spell out the names of the books of the Bible and of the Apocrypha, except when they occur with exact references. (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Matthew. Matt. 5:1-5 or Gen. 1:1) (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 11. Spell out the names of countries, states, provinces, territories, bodies of water, mountains and the like. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 12. Spell out the prefixes of geographic names: Fort, Lake, Mount, Point, Port, Saint. (e.g. Mount Saint Helens, Mount Mayon, Saint Louis Airport) (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 13. Spell out all such words as avenue, street, drive, road, court, square, terrace, building, capitalizing only when they are used as part of a name. (Give 5 examples)
(e.g. (1) The movie 13th Avenue is a beautiful movie.
(2) Mount Carmel is located in Carmelite Street.
(3) In the old street a haunted house stands.)
Rule # 14. Spell out north, south, east, west, as well as northeast, southwest and so on, capitalizing when they are part of a name, and abbreviating when they follow a street name. (e.g. (1) The seminary is in West wing of the building. (2) The wind came from the North. (3) The Church is located at 10 Carmelite Street SE.) (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 15. Spell out the names of months and of days when they occur in text, whether alone or in dates. But in footnotes, bibliographies, tables, the following designations are permissible if use consistently. Jan., Feb., Mar., etc.; Sun., Mon., Tues, Wed., Thurs., Fris., Sat. (Give 5 examples copied from an actual Research Footnote found in a book)
Rule # 16. Use the abbreviations A.M. and P.M. after numerals indicating time of day. Note that the abbreviation for noon is M., for midnight is P.M. (Give 10 examples)
Rule # 17. For era designations use the abbreviations B.C. (Before Christ), A.D. (Anno Domini), B.C.E. (Before the Common Era), or C.E. (Common Era). A.D. should precede the year number, and the other designations shoulf floow it. (Give 10 examples)
Rule # 18. Parts of a book. Spell out the words book, chapter, part, volume, section, scene, verse, column, page, figure, plate and so on, except that when such a term is followed by a number in footnote and parenthetical materials abbreviation is preferred: book (bks), chapter (chaps), part (pts), volume (vols), section (secs), scene (scs), verse (v), verses (vv), column (col), columns (cols), page (p pp), figure (figs), plate (pls). (Give 10 examples)
Rule # 19. Number Rules. In Scientific material all measurements are expressed in figures (100, 200). In non-scientific material numbers are spelled out and sometimes expressed in figures, according to prescribed rules. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 20. Figures should be used to express decimals and percentages. The word percent should be written out, except in scientific writing where the symbol % may be used. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 21. A fraction standing alone should be spelled out, but a numerical unit composed of a whole number and a fraction should be expressed in figures. (Give 10 examples)
Rule # 22. Currency. The general rule if the amount is spelled out, so are the words Pesos and Cents; if figures are used, the Peso symbol preceds them. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 23. The expression of very large amounts of money, which may be cumbersome whether spelled out in full or written in figures, may well follow the rule for expressing large round numbers using units of millions or billions with figures preceded by the Peso sign. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 24. Day, month and year. One of the two permissible styles for expressing day, month, and year should be followed consistently throughout the paper. The first, in which punctuation is omitted, is preferred. (Give 10 examples)
Rule # 25. When the day alone is given, or when the day is separated from the month by one or more words, the preferred style is to spell out the day of the month. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 26. When month and year alone is mentioned, the preferred style is to omit punctuation between them. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 27. In informal writing it is permissible to abbreviate reference to the year. (Give 5 examples)
Rule # 28. Centuries: References to particualr centuries should be spelled out, uncapitalized.
(Write this exercise on your Lecture Notebook first and later transfer to your assignment notebooks)
Rule # 29. Add s to all names except those ending in s, x or z or in ch or sh:
Rule # 30. Add es to names ending in s, x or z or in ch or sh.
Rule # 31. Form the plurals of most single and multiple capital letters used as nouns by adding s alone.
Rule # 32. Form the plurals of all small letters, of capital letters with periods, and of capital letters that would be confusing if s alone were added, by adding an apostrophe and s.
Rule # 33. Form the possessive case of a proper name in the singular by adding an apostrophe and s.
Rule # 34. The possessive case of the names of Jesus and Moses, and of Greek (or hellenized) names of more than one syllable ending in es, is formed by adding an apostrophe alone.
Rule # 35. Form the plurals of these nouns by following these simple rules: For nouns ending in f or fe, change f to v and add es.
Rule # 36. For nouns ending in y and preceded by a consonant, change y to i and add es.
Rule # 37. For nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel, just add s.
Rule # 38. For certain nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add es.
Rule # 39. For musical terms ending in o, just add s.
Rule # 40. For plural of some nouns is formed by a change of spelling.
Rule # 41. For nouns ending in ix, or ex, either ices or es is added.
Rule # 42. For compound nouns without hyphen, just add s or es.
Rule # 43. For a word made up of a noun and modifier, add s or es to the noun.
Rule # 44. For nouns of Latin origin ending with is, change is to es
Rule # 45. For nouns of Latin origin ending in us, change us to i
Rule # 46. For Latin word ending in a, add e to a.
Rule # 47. For nouns of French origin, just add x
Rule # 48. For some common nouns as well, a regard for euphony sets aside the rule for forming the possessive by adding an apostrophe and s, and instead adds only an apostrophe.
Rule # 49. Compounds made up of a word of relationship plus a noun should be spelled as separate words.
Rule # 50. Compounds made up of two nouns that are different but of equal importance should be hyphenated.
Determination of a Sample Size. In sample survey is used one has to determine the sample size by using this formula:
..........NV + [(Se)2 x (1-p)]
Ss = Nse + [(V)2 x p (1-p)]
Ss – Sample Size
N – Total Number of Population
V – Standard Value (2.58) of 1% level of probability with 99% reliability
Se – Sampling Error (0.01)
p – Larger Possible Proportion (0.50)
N – 700
..........700(2.58) + [(0.01) 2 x (1 - 0.50)]
Ss = 700(0.01) + [(2.58) 2 x 0.50 (1 - 0.50)]
........1806 + [0.0001 x 0.50]
Ss= 7 + [6.6564 x 0.50 (0.50)]
........1806 + [0.0001 x 0.50]
Ss= 7 + [6.6564 x 0.50 x 0.50)
.........1806 + 0.00005
Ss = 7 + 1.6641
Ss = 208
n = 1 + Ne2
n – Sample Size
N – Population Size
e – desired Margin of Error
Given: Population is 9,000. Margin of error is 2%
n = 1 + 9000 (0.02)2
n = 1 + 9000 (0.0004)
n = 1 + 3.6
n = 4.6
n = 1,957
Measurement – refers to the scoring reliability of the answers
5 – Strongly Agree
4 – Agree
3 – Undecided (Maybe)
2 – Disagree
1 – Strongly Disagree
4 – Very Adequate
3 - Adequate
2 – Fairly Adequate
1 – Inadequate
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient:
rxy = CORRELATION BETWEEN x and y
∑x – sum of the test x
∑y – sum of the test y
∑xy – sum of the product of x and y
N – Number of cases
∑X2 – sum of squared x score
∑Y2 – sum of squared y score
Glossary of Media Corruption:
AC-DC (Attack-Collect-Defend-Collect). Journalism where the reporter attacks a person in order to collect money from that person's rival. The same journalists then defends the person originally attacked, also for a fee.
ATM Journalism - Reporters who receive discreet and regular pay-offs thru their ATM.
Ayos (Fix) - act of bribing reporters either with money or gifts like late night entertainment.
Blood Money - payoff to ensure that a story or critical article is killed or else slanted in the briber's favor.
Bukol - reporter fails to get a share of the money distributed by politicians.
Bulig - thousand pesos.
Bicycle Gang - contacts of politicians in TV news desks who ensure video footage of candidates barnstorming in the provinces is criculated to the different TV networks by a messenger riding a bike.
Didal - practice of media handlers pocketing for themselves a part of the money intended for distribution to reporters.
Envelopmental journalism - journalism is envelopmental if involves an envelope of cash paid to reporters.
Hao siao - deragotory term used to refer to pseudo-journalists, those not employed by a reputable news organization but pass themselvess off as journalists in order to receive cash.
Inteligensia - cash given as bribe or protection money to the police, a part of which goes to journalists covering the police department.
Main event - act of distributing cash to journalists.
Orbit - reporters also make rounds of offices, particularly the police stations, to get their weekly payola.
Placement - journalists who moonlight as writers for candidates ensuring placement by making appeals to their friends in newspapers and broadcast agencies.
Point Man - reporter or editor working in a news organization but who is also paid by a candidate or political party to ensure that press releases are published or aired and also warn the candidate of negative stories emanating from rival camps.
Shepherds - reporter who are jobless or on leave and act as guides to reporters covering a particular candidate or party. Shephereds also receive a share from cash given.
Smiling money - cash that is given to reporters or editors for no particular except to create goodwill.
Tigbas - cut, used to refer to a share from politician's money.
Warik-warik - unscrupulous people in the provinces who pretends to be reporters, these are counterpart of city's hao siao.
CODE OF PROFESSIONAL & ETHICAL CONDUCT OF THE PHILIPPINE PRESS
1. Pay your way. The newspaper must cover the cost of coverage during the election campaign & count, including dining out sources for stories, airfaire, hotel accomodation, per diem and operations expenses of staff members assignedto political parties and candidates.
2. Do not accept cash or gifts in kind from politicians and political parties. All editors, reporters, photographers, columnists, artist and other staff members must resit all attempts of candidates or political parties to bribe the reporters in cash or in kind.
3. Do not moonlight with Political parties. No staff member shall be allowed to work on a part-time, full-time or contractual basis with any political party or candidate.
4. Beware of surveys. In using scientific polls or surveys, the sample size and margin of error should be disclosed or presented. Reporters should distinguish between scientific and non-scientific surveys such as readers' call-ins or write-ins and person-on-the-street interviews which are reported in statistical terms.
5. Reporters or researchers must weigh their obligations against the impact of: (a) involvement in particular activies; (b) affiliation with causes or organizations; (c) acceptance of favors or preferential treatment; (d) financial investments
6. Be careful with secondary jobs you take. "Outside work" or moonlighting presents per se potential conflict of interst, especially with individuals, firms or entities.
7. Do not use your paper/job to make money. Draw the line between research and your own money ventures.
8. You are entitled to advocate causes and join organizations but don't impose this on your readers. Disclose your advocacies and organizational involvements.
9. Don't misuse or abuse your privileges as a researcher.
10. Common sense and good judgment are required in applying these ethical principles.
Chapter I. Title
Chapter II. The Problem and Its Background.....2.1 Statement of the Problem/Objectives
.....2.2 Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
.....2.5 Significance of the Study
.....2.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
.....2.7 Definition of Key Terms
Chapter III. Review of Related Literature
.....3.1 Related Readings
.....3.2 Related Literature
.....3.3 Related Studies (Local or Foreign)
.....3.4 Justification of the Proposed Study
Chapter IV. Methodology
.....4.1 Research Design
.....4.2 Determination of Sample Size
.....4.3 Sampling Design and Technique
.....4.4 The Subjects
.....4.5 The Research Instrument
.....4.6 Validation of the Instrument
.....4.7 Data Gathering Procedure
.....4.8 Data Processing Method
.....4.9 Statistical Treatment
Chapter V. Schedule of Activities
Chapter VI. Bibliography
Chapter VII. Curriculum Vitae
August 29, 2007 LECTURE
Statement of the Problem
1. Problem should be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-bound (SMART)
2. Problem should be researchable or it can be investigated thru the collection and analysis of data
3. Background information on the problem should be presented
4. Educational significance of the problem should be discussed
5. Problem statement should indicate the variables of interest and the specific relationship between the variables which are investigated.
6. Variables should be operationally defined
1. Give vivid explanations regarding the relationship of variables
2. It uses abstract concepts, facts or laws, variables and relations that explain and predict how observed phenomena exist and operate.
3. It is a useful device for interpreting, criticizing and unifying established scientific laws of facts that guide the researcher to discover new generalizations.
1. Presumed as true statements of facts related to the research problem
2. Clearly stated to provide the reader foundation in analyzing the conclusions that result from the assumptions
Hypothesis - 2 Kinds:
1. Alternative Hypothesis – an affirmative existence of an observed phenomena.
2. Null Hypothesis – commonly used by researchers because it is a denial of difference of an effect which is easy to reject and accept. If the results show significant difference, then null hypothesis is rejected; if insignificant difference exists, acceptance of hypothesis occurs.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
1. Explanation and discussion on the coverage of the study area
2. Who are the Subjects (explain thoroughly)
3. Research Instruments
4. Research Issues and Concerns
5. Duration of the Study
6. Constraints that have direct bearing on the result of the Study
Definition of Key Terms: TWO WAYS
1. Conceptual – meaning of the terms is taken from the dictionary or encyclopedia
2. Operational – definition is based on an observed characteristic and how it is used in the study.
General Organization and Coverage of theStudy
1. Components per chapter is explained
2. Coverage per chapter is described
Review of Related Literature
©Related literature should be comprehensive
©All references cited should be RELEVANT to the problem under investigation
©Most of the sources should be primary
©Results of various studies should be compared and contrasted
©Review should end with a brief summary of the literature and its implications on the problem investigated.
1. Related Readings – principal sources are laws, constitutions, department directives such as circulars, orders, memoranda and many others. These serve as legal bases so that the present study has implications with the government thrusts. This should be explained thoroughly and not merely quoted.
2. Related Literature – these are articles taken from books, journals, magazines, novels, poetry and many others. Each quotation should be explained thoroughly and not merely arranged and footnoted.
3. Related Studies – findings of published and unpublished research studies which are related to the present study are included in this section. The research studies are segregated into foreign and local.
4. Justification of the Present Study – the researcher has to justify the direct bearing of the related readings, related literatured and related studies to the present study deeply and thoroughly. The researcher must also justify the differencens of the present study with the past studies conducted in relation to the present problem.
©The researcher has to choose the most appropriate research design which is applicable to his/her study. If study is descriptive research, he/she has to select one from 9 types of descriptive research and has to explain how this applies;
2. Descriptive-Normative: statements in this study are affirmed in relation to how things should or ought to be, how to value them, which things are good or bad, which actions are right or wrong.
8. Correlational Survey: correlation refers to the departure of two variables from independence. In this broad sense there are several coefficients, measuring the degree of correlation, adapted to the nature of data. Coefficients are used for different situations. The best known is the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, which is obtained by dividing the covariance of the two variables by the product of their standard deviations. Despite its name, it was first introduced by Francis Galton.
9. Longitudinal Survey: like a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time, often many decades.
Determination of Sample Size
Sample Size is determined using the formula:
NV + [Se2 (1 – p)]
Ss = NSe + [V2p(1-p)]
©You need to discuss thoroughly why you choose this sample size.
©Prove that the Sample Size is enough representative of your entire population.
©Explain that the Sample Size has the characteristics of the entire subjects you wish to interview.
Sampling Design and Technique
©Explain thoroughly your Sampling Design and Technique whether it is SCIENTIFIC Sampling or NON-SCIENTIFIC Sampling.
1. Explain HOW and WHERE the subjects are taken. The size and major characteristics of the population studied should be described thoroughly.
2. What kind of people are they, what are their values, behaviours, wants, dislikes, aspirations, desires.
3. Are they rich or poor?
4. How can they be helped?
5. Are they able to help themselves?
6. What are their existing problems?
EXPLAIN THOROUGHLY!!! THAT IS THE RULE!!!
Validation of the Instruments
1. Suggestion, corrections & refinement of the draft is explained thoroughly.
2. The different persons involved in the correction and refinement of the research instrument may be mentioned.
3. After refinement, testing the validity and reliability of the instrument may be done. Explain its process.
4. Experts in line with the field of study may be requested to go over the research instrument.
©Each instrument should be described in terms of purpose and content
©The instrument should be appropriate for measuring the intended variables
©Validity and reliability of the instruments should be thoroughly discussed
©If an instrument was developed for a study, the procedures involved and validity should be described. Administration, scoring, tabulating and interpretation procedures should be fully described.
Data Gathering Procedure
©Having found the research instrument VALID and RELIABLE, the researcher proceeds to ask permission and approval from Local government units, heads of agency where the SUBJECT stays or is working.
©Then, he/she DESCRIBES step-by-step how he gathered the data, starting from how he/she found courage to approach the authorities down to the interview process, how he/she is answered by the SUBJECTS, if he/she is welcomed or rejected. All these are part of the Data Gathering procedure.
Data Processing Method
After the retrieval of the questionnaire, the investigator tabulates and processes the data. Quantitative and qualitative data processing may be determined to arrive at scientific analysis and interpretation of results. Categorization of the subjects may be stated. Data matrix based on dummy tables may be used to organize, summarize, and analyze the data on how the variables differ with each other.
©Explain the statistical tools used to answer the research questions of the study.
©The level of probability, either 1 or 5 percent, may be stated to determine the degree of significance of the findings.
©If you are using ANOVA or Friedman two-way analysis of Variance explain why it is reliable.
Results, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
©All specific questions are answered here. You can even show illustrations, tables, graphs here to show what you have concluded in your study.
©If you are using ANOVA, present the ANOVA table here and tell how the F functions if your Hypothesis are rejected or accepted.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
1. General Summary of the Study. This section includes the summary of the statement of the problem, hypothesis, research design, determination of the sample size, sampling design and technique, the subjects, the research instruments, validation of the research instrument, data gathering procedure, data processing method and statistical treatment
2. Summary of Findings. This section summarizes the results. If there are specific questions in Chapter 1 and answered in Chapter 4, then the answers should be summarized here.
3. Conclusions. It should dovetail with the findings of the study. If there are 10 summary of findings, then there should be 10 Conclusions. Conclusions should be arranged based on the findings. Rejection and Acceptance of the Hypothesis are explained thoroughly in this section.
4. Recommendations. Recommendations are based on the conlucions. This is arranged in the conclusions. In addition, recommendation may include further research of the study. Summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations may dovetail with each other.
Bibliography is defined as the concluding section of a research paper, thesis or dissertation where listing of source materials are alphabetically arranged.
Functions of Bibliography:
1. To give the reader the scope of the research behind the paper
2. To determine if a particular work has been used
3. To provide the reader foundation for further research
4. To allow the reader to find out easily the full bibliographic information for materials referred to in in parenthetical notes where only the name of the author and year are given.
5. To give necessary descriptive details for the source materials as a whole in order that original statements can be located and consulted by the reader.